Oil rigs, offshore platforms or oil platform is a very large structure which is being used for many purposes such as to extort oil or natural gas and to save the products for a small time period which have been brought to a city or country for business purpose. Many of these platforms also have houses made for the workers, working on the platform and performing different jobs. These good or oil does not remain on these platforms for long time, they get transferred to other places. There are many types of these platforms, some are fixed in the surface of the ocean, some float on the water and some have artificial islands. One can also see the subsea wells through umbilical connections.
The fixed platforms are being built by using legs of concrete or steel, some time both materials works to build these legs. They get attached to a seabed and also have a deck to place different tools such as drill rig, workers and production facilities. These platforms are being made in different structures such as concrete caisson, floating concrete, and floating steel and steel jacket. These platforms are best to be installed in the water with depth of 520.
These type of platforms have flexible slender and towers and it also have a deck for drilling and production operation. This type of platform is best with water depth of 370 to 910 and it help to maintain things in case of the pressure of different forces.
These types of platforms have hulls for the float of the structure; these hulls have enough weight to keep the structure erect and upright. These platforms can be moved from one place to another and their movement can be controlled by changing the flooding in buoyancy tanks. These platforms are being anchored with the help of different chain, polyester rope and wire rope for production operation and drilling. The benefit of these types is that they can be placed in one place by using different dynamic positions. It requires 60 to 3000m deep water.
Jack-up drilling rigs
These types of rigs have legs that can be lowered in the water or jacked up above the sea. These are best in the water depth of 120 meters. Some of them can go as deep as 560m. These can be anchored by positioning their legs in the bottom of the sea by using rack and pinion gear system.
Spars are moored to the seabed like TLPs, but whereas a TLP has vertical tension tethers, a spar has more conventional mooring lines. The spar has more inherent stability than a TLP since it has a large counterweight at the bottom and does not depend on the mooring to hold it upright. It also has the ability, by adjusting the mooring line tensions to move horizontally and to position itself over wells at some distance from the main platform location.
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